In Buddhist tantra the buddha families are a key way to understand and work with emotional energies. Each family represents a particular emotion, which has both a confused aspect (klesha) and an enlightened aspect (wisdom). The families are embodied by 5 primordial buddhas who are arranged in a mandala.
The Buddha family is the wisdom of all-encompassing space and the klesha of ignorance. Buddha is associated with open sky and represented by the buddha Vairocana, who is in the center of the mandala and white in color.
Vajra is mirror-like wisdom, which reflects reality purely and directly. Its corresponding klesha is anger. Vajra is connected with winter and the element of water and is represented by Akshobhya, who is in the east and is blue.
The Ratna family’s wisdom is equanimity and its confused manifestation is pride. Ratna is associated with richness, autumn, and generosity and is embodied by Ratnasambhava, who is in the south and is yellow.
Padma is discriminating wisdom, which allows us to see clearly what is needed. Its klesha is passion or possessiveness. Padma is associated with spring, blossoming, and fire and is embodied by Amitabha Buddha, who is in the west and is red.
Karma is all-accomplishing wisdom. Its kleshas are jealousy and envy. Karma is associated with summer and the energy of wind and is represented by Amoghasiddhi, who is in the north and is green.